Carbohydrates: Occurrence, classification, properties and reactions. Inter-relationship between the monosaccharides. Constitution of glucose and fructose, Mutaration. Determination of ring size. Configuration of the hydroxyl groups: Haworth projections and conformational structures. Chemistry of the carbohydrate polymers (starch, cellulose and glycogen). Amino acids, peptides and proteins: occurrence, classification, synthesis and general properties (Zwitter ionic nature, pKa values, isoelectric point and electrophoresis of amino amino acids). Biological importance of proteins as enzymes and drugs. Estimation of free amino and carboxyl groups. Chemical methods of structure elucidation of peptides, proteins, nucleosides and nucleotides.